Tarbosaurus (Terrifying lizard)
Tarbosaurus (Terrifying lizard)
Named By : Evgeny Maleev - 1955
Diet : Carnivore
Size : Estimated 10 – 12 meters long
Type of Dinosaur : Large Theropod
Type Species : T. bataar (type)
Found in : Mongolia
When it Lived : Late Cretaceous, 74-70 million years ago
Tarbosaurus (/,ta:rb@’so:r@sor TAR-b@’SAWR-@s; which translates to “alarming lizard”) is a genus belonging to the tyrannosaurid dinosaurs that flourished in Asia approximately 70 million years ago near the end of Late Cretaceous Period, considered to be the only known speciescalled Tarbosaurus bataar. Fossils have been found in Mongolia and more fragmentary remains being discovered further out in areas of China.
While a variety of species have been described by paleontologists, they only recognize one species, T. bataar as legitimate. Many experts consider this species as one of the Asian species belonging to Tyrannosaurus. North American genus Tyrannosaurus; this makes the Genus Tarbosaurus redundant. Tarbosaurus and Tyrannosaurus even if they are not they are believed to be at a minimum close relatives genera. Alioramus is also from Mongolia was previously believed by some experts to be the nearest relative to Tarbosaurus however this is now disproved through finding Qianzhousaurus along with the description of Alioramini.
As with the majority of tyrannosaurids, Tarbosaurus was a big bipedal predator that weighed up to 5 meters (5.5 shorter tons) and sporting around sixty teeth. It was the only animal with the only locking mechanism that was unique within its lower jaw. It also had the smallest forelimbs in relation to the body size of any tyrannosaurid famous for their tiny forelimbs with two fingers.
Tarbosaurus was a resident of an area of humid floodplain that was criss-crossed with rivers channels. In this setting the predator was known as an apex probably preying upon other large dinosaurs, such as those of the hadrosaur Saurolophus as well as Sauropod Nemegtosaurus. Tarbosaurus is represented in dozens of fossils, including numerous skulls that are complete and Skeletons. These fossils have allowed scientists to conduct studies that focus on its skull mechanics, phylogeny and the brain’s structure.
The year was 1946. A Soviet-Mongolian joint excursion to The Gobi desert in Mongolia’s Mongolian Omnogovi Province turned up an enormous theropod skull, as well as some vertebrae within the Nemegt Formation. It was in the year 1955 that Evgeny Maleev (a Soviet paleontologist, declared this specimen the Holotype (PIN 551-1) of the new species, which was named Tyrannosaurus bataar. The name itself is a misspelling for the Mongolian baatar/baatar (“hero”). The same year, Maleev also identified and described three new skulls of theropods, each one of them a part of bones found during the same expedition in 1948 and 1949. The first (PIN 551-2) was called Tarbosaurus efremovi which is a brand new generic name that combines two words: Ancient Greek tarbos (tarbos) (“terror”, “alarm”, “awe”, or “reverence”) and sauros (sauros) (“lizard”) and also the species is named in honor of Ivan Yefremov, a Russian paleontologist and author of science fiction. The two other (PIN 553-1, and PIN 552-2) were also designated as new species, and placed in those belonging to the North American genus Gorgosaurus (G. Lancinator and G. Novojilovi in turn). The three samples are larger than original.
A 1965 paper written by A.K. Rozhdestvensky acknowledged all Maleev’s fossils as being different stages of growth within the same species and believed them as distinct from North American Tyrannosaurus. He invented a brand new species, Tarbosaurus bataar, to encompass all the specimens that were described in 1955 as well with more recent material. Six of the later authors such as Maleev himself, endorsed Rozhdestvensky’s findings, but certain authors used the term Tarbosaurus efremovi, rather than T. bataar. American paleontologist Kenneth Carpenter re-examined the material in 1992. He concluded that it was part of the genus Tyrannosaurus which was first published by Maleev and then incorporated all specimens in Tyrannosaurus bataar. Tyrannosaurus bataar with the exception of the remains of the specimen that Maleev had identified as Gorgosaurus novojilovi. Carpenter believed that this specimen was an additional, smaller species of Tyrannosaurid that Carpenter referred to as Maleevosaurus novojilovi. George Olshevsky created the new generic name Jenghizkhan (after Genghis Khan) for Tyrannosaurus bataar in the year 1995, in addition to recognizing Tarbosaurus, efremovi and Maleevosaurus Novojilovi, which is an overall total of three distinct contemporaneous genera of the Nemegt Formation. In 1999, a study changed the classification of Maleevosaurus as an adult Tarbosaurus. The majority of research published since 1999 has been based on one species, which is either Tarbosaurus bataar, or Tyrannosaurus bataar.
Following the initial Russian-Mongolian expeditions of the 1940s, joint Polish-Mongolian explorations of the Gobi Desert started in 1963, and continued until 1971, bringing back a variety of fossils that were previously unknown, including the first fossils from Tarbosaurus found in the Nemegt Formation. The expeditions that involved Japanese as well as Mongolian experts between 1993 and 1998 and private expeditions facilitated by Canadian paleontologist Phil Currie around the turn into the 21st century found and collected more Tarbosaurus materials. More than 30 of the specimens are documented, which includes over 15 skulls as well as many complete postcranial skeletons.
Tarbosaurus fossils are found only within the Gobi Desert in Mongolia and China Both of them restrict their export, however some fossils have been stolen from private collections. A recent $1 million smuggling transaction was discovered when concerns were raised regarding the catalog released through Heritage Auctions for an event in New York City on May 20th 2012. According to Mongolian law every specimen discovered within the Gobi Desert is to be buried at a Mongolian institution. There is no reason to belief that this Tarbosaurus bataar featured in the catalog was stolen. The Mongolian president Mongolia and a number of paleontologists voiced concerns over the sale that led to an investigation which confirmed the specimen is only located within the Gobi Desert and is legally belonged to Mongolia. The trial (United State the United States v. One Tyrannosaurus Bataar Skeleton), Eric Prokopi was found to be the smuggler. He admitted guilt to illegal smuggling. The skeleton has been brought back in Mongolia in 2013. it was displayed for a short time in Sukhbaatar Square, the center of the city of Ulaanbaatar. Prokopi had been selling the dinosaur along alongside a another commercial hunter from England, Christopher Moore. The incident resulted in the return of many additional Mongolian dinosaurs, including a number of skulls from Tarbosaurus bataar.