Torvosaurus (Savage lizard)
Torvosaurus (Savage lizard)
Named By : Peter Galton & James A. Jensen - 1979
Diet : Carnivore
Size : Estimated 9 – 10 meters long
Type of Dinosaur : Large Theropod
Type Species : T. tanneri (type), T. gurneyi
Found in : USA - Colorado - Morrison Formation. Portugal – Lourinhă Formation
When it Lived : Late Jurassic, 155-144 million years ago
Torvosaurus (/,to:rvoU’so:r@sto:rvoU’so) is one of the geniuses belonging to the carnivorous megalosaurid dinosaurs which lived from 165 to 150 million years ago in its late Middle as well as the Late Jurassic period (Callovian to Tithonian stages) in the present Colorado, Portugal, Germany and perhaps England, Tanzania, and Uruguay. It includes two of the most well-known varieties, Torvosaurus tanneri and Torvosaurus Gurneyi, and another species that is from Germany that is currently unknown.
In 1979, the species Torvosaurus Tanneri was identified as It was a huge heavy-built bipedal carnivore that could attain the length of around 10 meters (33 feet). T. Tanneri was one of the largest carnivores at the time. moment, alongside Epanterias along with Saurophaganax (which could as synonyms of Allosaurus). The specimens that are referred to as Torvosaurus gurneyi were originally believed to be as long as 12 meters (39 feet) long, however, they were later proved to be shorter. Based on the morphology of bones, Torvosaurus is believed to have had short , but very strong arms.
The fossilized remains of Torvosaurus were discovered within North America, Portugal, Germany and, possibly, England, Tanzania, and Uruguay.
The first remains that were found to be a reference to Torvosaurus were found around 1899, by Elmer Riggs in the “Freeze-out Hills” of southeast Wyoming located 18 km (11 miles) northeast in Medicine Bow. The specimen consisted of a portion of left as well as right hand. They were transported into the Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago, Illinois where they were kept until they were discovered in 2010. This specimen was assigned Torvosaurus Tanneri following its description in 2014.
There are more remains of a huge theropod, believed to be Torvosaurus were found within the Tendaguru Formation of Tanzania and was identified as “Megalosaurus” ingens by Werner Janensch in 1920 after the discovery of MB R 1050, a 12-centimeter (4.7 in) long tooth that was found in German East Africa (now Tanzania). It was eventually reclassified as a probable member of the Carcharodontosauridae before being reclassified as a probable member of the Torvosaurus genus in 2020, thus potentially creating the new species Torvosaurus ingens as Soto et al. (2020) acknowledged that the Tendaguru as well as the Tacuarembo substance as belonging to a distinct species of Torvosaurus but additional specimens will need to be collected before it could be accepted as a brand new species. This particular species of Torvosaurus could be the identical type that was identified by Torvosaurus as the one from the Tacuarembo Formation of Uruguay. However, Rauhut et al. consider the teeth to be undiagnostic, being coherent in size and shape with a variety of other theropods (including carcharodontosaurids), and thus they consider their attribution to the genus to be problematic.
It was in 1971 that Vivian Jones, of Delta, Colorado (USA) In the Calico Gulch Quarry in Moffat County located one huge thumb claw from a theropod. The discovery was made by James Alvin Jensen, a collector for Brigham Young University. To find similar fossils, her spouse Daniel Eddie Jones directed Jensen to the Dry Mesa Quarry, where enormous theropod bones, along with Supersaurus remains, were found in the rocks that belong to the Morrison Formation. From 1972 onwards, the area was discovered through Jensen as well as Kenneth Stadtman. The species that is the type Torvosaurus tanneri was identified and documented during 1979 by Peter Malcolm Galton and Jensen. The name of the genus Torvosaurus is derived of Torvosaurus, which is the Latin word torvus which means “savage”, and the Greek word sauros (sauros) meaning “lizard”. The exact name, tanneri is named in honor of the Tanner, the first counselor of the Presidency First in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Nathan Eldon Tanner.
As of 1985 Jensen reported a substantial amount of additional material, including the first skull parts. The fossils found in Colorado were further identified in the work of Brooks Britt in 1991. The Holotype BYU 2002 was originally comprised of the upper arms bones (humeri) along with lower arm bone (radii and the ulnae). The paratypes comprised hip bones, back bones along with hand bones. If the material from 1985 has been added to the mix, then the most missing components include the shoulder girdle as well as the thighbone. The thumb claw that was originally found specimen, BYUVP 2020 was temporarily identified as having been found at a site located 195 kilometers (121 miles) far of the Dry Mesa Quarry. The holotype and the paratypes represent at least three persons three adults and a child. The year 1991 was the time Britt decided that there is no evidence that the front legs of the holotype were linked and selected the left humerus for the type of lectotype. A number of individual bones as well as teeth that have been found at different American places have been linked to Torvosaurus.
in 1992, the fossils from an enormous theropod discovered in Como Bluff in Wyoming, including shoulder girdle, skull and pelvis, as well as ribs have been identified by Robert T. Bakker et al. as the Edmarka rex species. Bakker and colleagues were awestruck by the dimensions of Edmarka and noted the fact that this “would rival T. rex in total length,” and describing this dimension to be “a natural ceiling for dinosaurian meat-eaters.” It was frequently regarded as an intermediate synonym for Torvosaurus however a thorough study hasn’t been conducted as of as of yet. The same site has produced comparable remains , and the term nudum Brontoraptor was employed. Researchers now view both of the specimens as belonging Torvosaurus Tanneri.
In 2012, an unidentified, 55% complete specimen was found located in Colorado at the Skull Creek Quarry, an expose from the Morrison Formation. The specimen, which was dubbed “Elvis”, included the pelvic spine, hind limb and pelvic bones, and a full, as well as the backbone, maxillary and cranial components and is one of the largest specimens of Torvosaurus discovered to this point. A skeleton that was mounted from the specimen, which has parts missing, reconstructed using casts of other Torvosaurus specimens, is displayed at the Museum of Natural History & Science in Cincinnati.
In 2000 in 2000, materials from Portugal was identified as the Torvosaurus sp. in the works of Octavio Mateus as well as Miguel Telles Antunes. In 2006, fossils from The Portuguese Lourinha Formation was identified to Torvosaurus Tanneri. In 2012, however, Matthew Carrano et al. concluded that the material was not able to be more precise other than Torvosaurus sp. In 2013 and 2014 , eggs without and with embryos were found in Portugal and were referred to as Torvosaurus. The species found in Portugal was called T. Gurneyi to honor the memory of James Gurney in 2014, who was the founder of the Dinotopia series of books. It is the biggest theropod found in Europe however an anterior caudal vertebra that is isolated found in the Vega Formation in Spain, that could be a part of Torvosaurus or another closely related taxon is around 15% bigger than that found on T. Gurneyi. It was the distinct morphology of the Holotype maxilla, ML1100, that was the basis for the name for this species. Portuguese species.
The year 2017 saw the first time a group of Portuguese material from the cranial area identified as belonging to Torvosaurus was identified, which included one that was interpreted to be belonging to the same animal as the Holotype from Torvosaurus gurneyi.
In the year 2020 an unidentified maxilla that was referred to Torvosaurus was discovered in mid-sized Callovian Ornatenton Formation in Germany. This is the oldest known record of the genus and indicates that megalosaurines came from Europe or at the very the very least, that Europe is a biogeographical turning point for this particular group from to the Middle to the Late Jurassic. Other possibilities for Torvosaurus examples in Europe are fragmentary remains found in Kimmeridge Clay. Kimmeridge Clay of England which may be belonging to the Genus.