Cryolophosaurus ‭(‬Cold crest lizard‭)

Short Info

Cryolophosaurus ‭(‬Cold crest lizard‭)

Phonetic : Cry-oh-low-foe-sore-us.

Named By : William R.‭ ‬Hammer‭ & ‬William J.‭ ‬Hickerson‭ ‬-‭ ‬1994

Diet : Carnivore

Size : Estimated 6-8 meters long

Type of Dinosaur : Large Theropod

Type Species : C.‭ ‬ellioti‭ (‬type‭)

Found in : Antarctica‭ ‬-‭ ‬Hanson Formation

When it Lived : Early Jurassic, 170 million years ago

Cryolophosaurus (/,kraIoU,loUfoU’so:r@s/ or /kraI,aloUfoU’so:r@s/; “CRY-oh-loaf-oh-SAWR-us”) is a genus of large theropod dinosaur known from only a single species Cryolophosaurus ellioti, from the early Jurassic of Antarctica. It was approximately 6.5 meters (21.3 feet) long and weighed 465 kilograms (1,025 lbs) in weight that makes one of the largest theropods that ever lived. It is possible that individuals of this species have grown larger since the only identified specimen could be an adult sub-adult. Cryolophosaurus is identified by its skull as well as a femur as well as other materials including the skull and femur, which has caused its classification to change. The femur is characterized by several primitive characteristics which have led to the classification of Cryolophosaurus as an dilophosaurid as a neotheropod that is outside the categories of Dilophosauridae and Averostra The skull has numerous advanced features which have caused the genus be classified as a Tetanuran, an abelisaurid or a ceratosaur and possibly an allosaurid. Cryolophosaurus is now believed to be a neotheropod derivation which is similar to Averostra.

Cryolophosaurus skeletonWehaveaTrex, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Cryolophosaurus had a distinct “pompadour” crest that spanned the head from side to side. Based on the evidence of related species as well as examinations of the bone’s texture it’s believed that this peculiar crest was utilized to recognize species within the same. Brains of Cryolophosaurus was additionally more primitive than those of other theropods.

Orton Hall Cryolophosaurus 1Vejlenser, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Cryolophosaurus was first discovered in Antarctica’s Early Jurassic, Sinemurian to Pliensbachian aged Hanson Formation, formerly the upper Falla Formation, by paleontologist Dr. William Hammer in 1991. It was the first carnivore dinosaur discovered in Antarctica and was the first dinosaur that was not an avian from Antarctica to be named officially. The sediments from which fossils were found were dating at between 194 and 181 million years old, which is an Early Jurassic Period.

Cryolophosaurus Holotype Skull FMNHJonathan Chen, CC BY-SA 4.0, via Wikimedia Commons

Cryolophosaurus was first discovered in the austral summer of 1990-91 at Mount Kirkpatrick in the Beardmore Glacier region of the Transantarctic Mountains. The discovery was discovered by Hammer Professor, who is in the department of biology at Augustana College, and his team. The fossils were discovered in siliceous siltstone from the Hanson Formation which was previously known as part of the higher Falla Formation and dating prior to Pliensbachian stage of the late Jurassic. Cryolophosaurus was the first dinosaur and the first theropod to be found in Antarctica. It was discovered following Antarctopelta however, it was named before.

In 1991 the two of them Hammer as well as Ohio State University geologist David Elliot explored separate outcrops in the vicinity of Beardmore Glacier, sharing logistical costs. Elliot’s team was first to discover evidence of Cryolophosaurus in an outcrop of rock around an altitude of 4,000 meters (13,000 feet) high and approximately 640 km (400 miles) away from south of the South Pole. When they discovered the find and they alerted Hammer. In the following three weeks Hammer extracted 2,300 kilograms (5,100 pounds) of fossil-bearing rocks. The team found over 100 fossil bones including those belonging to Cryolophosaurus. The fossils were officially classified and named on the 14th of April, 1994 in the work of Hammer and Hickerson within the scientific journal Science.

In the 2003 season in 2003, a field team resurfaced and collected additional material from the site. Another site was discovered approximately 30 meters (98 feet) higher up in the section of Mount. Kirkpatrick.

The term Cryolophosaurus ellioti is taken from the Greek words kruos (meaning “cold” or “frozen due to the discovery of it in Antarctica) as well as the word lophos (meaning “crest”) as well as sauros (meaning “lizard”) which is why it’s “cold crest lizard”. Hammer and Hickerson gave the species the name C. ellioti, after David Elliot, who had been the first to discover fossils.

The FMNH PR1821 holotype is believed to be the only specimen that is fully described of Cryolophosaurus. The specimen is comprised of a skull that is not complete and mandibles that lack much of their frontal portion and nine maxillary teeth. an incomplete sixth cervical center cervical vertebrae 7-10, several cervical ribs that are posterior as well as numerous anterior dorsal vertebrae the majority of posterior and mid dorsal vertebrae; a number of dorsal ribs; five sacral vertebrae, three chevrons; numerous full and partial caudal vertebrae, and centra; two humeri partial with a proximal radius. the proximal ulna, an ilium that is partially enlarged; pubis at the proximal end and both ischias, however only one distal, two incomplete femora that are located at the distal part of a tibia, the distal tip of a fibula, as well as the astragalus and the calcaneum. The material was discovered in 2013 from Cryolophosaurus was discovered in Antarctica. The information about this material is not yet published in a non-abstract format.

Cryolophosaurus was a huge well-built and well-built theropod. It was among the biggest dinosaurs of its time. The genus was identified by Roger Benson and colleagues (2012) as a predator of the top in Antarctica. It was a slim genus. Cryolophosaurus was deemed to be 6 to 7 meters (19.7 to 23.0 feet) of length, according to William R. Hammer & William J. Hickerson (1999). A study conducted in 2007 of Nathan Smith et al. changed the length of the stone to 6.5 millimeters (21.3 feet). The estimated weight of the animal is 465 kilograms (1,025 lbs). Based on these weight and length estimate, Cryolophosaurus is currently the largest known Early Jurassic theropod. Smith and co. (2007b) as well Benson and. (2012) stated that the holotype person represents a sub-adult, therefore adults might have been larger. In 2016, Molina-Perez and Larramendi provided a more accurate estimate that was 7.7 meters (25.3 feet) and 780kg (1.720 pounds).

Source: Wikipedia