Camarasaurus (Chambered lizard)
Camarasaurus (Chambered lizard)
Named By : Edward Drinker Cope - 1877
Diet : Herbivore
Size : Estimated 15-23 meters long
Type of Dinosaur : Sauropod
Type Species : C. supremus (type), C. grandis, C. lentus
Found in : USA, Wyoming, New Mexico, Colorado & Utah - Morrison Formation.
When it Lived : Late Jurassic, 150-140 million years ago
Camarasaurus (/,kaem@r@’so:r@sKAM-@r-@ SAWR-@s) is a species that was herbivorous, quadrupedal dinosaurs. Camarasaurus was among the more frequent of the huge sauropods that could be discovered throughout North America. The fossil remains of this species were discovered throughout the Morrison Formation of Colorado and Utah that date back up to Late Jurassic epoch (Kimmeridgian to Tithonian stages) between 155-145 million years ago.
Camarasaurus displayed a distinct facet of the cranium, with a round skull with an arched snout that was quite square. It was likely to have traveled in herds, or in families.
The name translates to “chambered lizard”, referring to the hollow spaces in the vertebrae (Greek kamara (kamara) meaning “vaulted chamber”, or anything that has an arched cover, as well as sauros (sauros) meaning “lizard”.
Camarasaurus is one of the most frequent and preserved sauropod dinosaurs found. The biggest dimensions of one of the more commonly encountered specie, C. lentus, was 15 meters (49 feet) long. The most massive species, C. supremus, had the maximum length of 23 meters (75 feet) and an estimate of weight 47 millimetric tonnes (51.8 tonnes).
The skull with arched sides of Camarasaurus was exceptionally square and the snout was blunt with numerous fenestrae. Despite this, the skull was robust and often found in good condition by paleontologists. The 19-cm (7.5-in) teeth appeared formed as the chisels (spatulate) and were evenly spaced throughout the jaw. The teeth’s strength indicate that Camarasaurus likely ate more coarse plants than the diplodocids with slender teeth.
The front limbs of each had five toes, with the middle toe having a big sharp claw. Similar to most sauropods front limbs were smaller than hind legs however, the elevated posture of the shoulders resulted in a lack of slopes in the back were present.
In order to save weight like other sauropods. Many of vertebrae were hollowed and were “pneumatic”; that is vertebrae were brimming with cavities and passages to accommodate an intricate system of air sacs linked to the lungs. This was not fully known at the time that Camarasaurus first came to light, however its shape was the basis for the name of the creature that translates to “chambered lizard”. The tail and neck, which was counterbalanced, were shorter than the norm for a sauropod this size. Camarasaurus was, as with other sauropods had an expansion of the spinal cord in the vicinity of the hips. Paleontologists believed it to be a brain with a second, maybe necessary to coordinate an enormous creature. In reality, although it could be an area of intense nerve system, probably reflex or automatic but it wasn’t but a brain. Brain enlargements like this occur to a large extent in vertebrate species.
Camarasaurus grandis was larger with a more sturdy radius than the sauropod Venenosaurus.
A model of Camarasaurus known as SMA 0002 (which is also given the name of Cathetosaurus) located in Wyoming’s Howe-Stephens Quarry, referred to as “E.T. “, shows evidence of soft tissue. Along the jawline there are ossified remnants of what appears to be the animal’s gums were found, suggesting that the teeth were deep-set which were covered by gums with only the crowns’ tips protruding. The teeth, after dying, pushed out from their sockets because gums receding as they dried and were tightened by decay. The examinations of this specimen also reveal they were covered with hard outer scales, and possibly the beak of a different kind although this isn’t confirmed.
The first mention of Camarasaurus is from 1877 when a few vertebrae were discovered in Colorado through Oramel Lucas. Lucas. Following his lengthy and heated contest (known in the Bone Wars) with Othniel Charles Marsh and Paleontologist Edward Drinker Cope paid for the bones and then, rapidly identified them the following year. On his part, Marsh later named some of his sauropod discoveries Morosaurus grandis, however the majority of paleontologists today believe that they are a type of Camarasaurus. These naming disputes were common between predators of dinosaurs who were rivals.
An entire skeleton from Camarasaurus was not first described up until the year 1925 when it was first discovered in the work of Charles W. Gilmore. It was because that it’s the skeleton of an early Camarasaurus however, numerous illustrations of the time showed the dinosaur to be smaller than it’s considered to be.