Bugenasaura (large-cheeked lizard)
Bugenasaura (large-cheeked lizard)
Named By : William J. Morris – 1976
Diet : Herbivore
Size : Estimated 3 meters long
Type of Dinosaur : Small Theropod
Type Species : B. infernalis
Found in : USA – North America
When it Lived : Late Cretaceous, 70 million years ago
Bugenasaura (meaning “large-cheeked lizard”) was a genus belonging to hypsilophodont dinosaurs from the Maastrichtian age of late. Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of South Dakota and possibly Montana. The name is derived from an incomplete skull that is noted for its large ridges on the maxilla as well as the dentary, which were believed to be the points of attachment for cheek muscles. Bugenasaura is believed as a synonym for junior for Thescelosaurus.
It is not yet clear the bones of Bugenasiurus and, in comparison to other hypsilophodonts was likely to be a biped with an extremely long tail and shorter head. It was more massive than the other hypsiophodonts. The most constrained material, the leg portion from B. garba, when contrasted with a normal Thescelosaurus is a skeleton that was 4 to 4.5 feet (13.1 – 14.75 meters) long. 1. A lot more of the genus recognized than what has been published, since Norman and co. (2003) assert that two skulls and three skeletons are famous for it.
Ugenasaura has been identified as a hypsilophodont similar to the species Thescelosaurus. However, its evolutionary connections are not well identified at this time. There are two species that have been assigned: the species that is known as the type B. infernalis which is based mostly on a skull in addition to B. garbanii, based on bob the builder.
and a partial leg initially thought to be part of another kind of Thescelosaurus. B. garbanii is sometimes considered to be a synonym for B. infernalis. However, this isn’t settled and, given that garbanii was more ancient, it would cause the binomial to revert back into Bugenasaura garbanii.
William J. Morris, in his article from 1976 covering the new remains of Thescelosaurus, wrote about a fragmented skull, two vertebrae that were partially displaced as well as two manual phalanges (SDSM 7210) as?Thescelosaurus Sp. He also drew attention to its premaxillary teeth and its deeply-inset toothline that he believed was evidence of the existence of cheek muscles. Morris also identified the outwardly-flaming premaxilla (which could have given it a large “beak”) and large palpebrals (long thin bones protruding from the upper front part of the orbit (eye socket) and could have given the animal large bones that resembled “eyebrows”). The specimen was discovered inside the Hell Creek Formation of Harding County, South Dakota.
In the same article in the same paper, he named it?Thescelosaurus garbanii for a huge part of the hindlimb (“a third bigger than the described samples that belong to T. neglectus or Parksosaurus and nearly twice as big than Hypsilophodon”) comprising feet, tarsus fibula, tibia and a partial femur, with 5 cervical (neck) and 11 dorsal (back) vertebrae (LACM 33542). If you were to scale it up from a normal Thescelosaurus it would place it 4 to 4.5 metres (13.1 to 14.75 feet) long. In addition to the dimensions, Morris drew attention to how the ankle was built that he thought as unique, excluding comparison to Thescelosaurus edmontonensis which he believed to be distinct species. This specimen came found in the Hell Creek Formation of Garfield County, Montana, and was discovered by paleontologist and amateur Harley Garbani.
T. sp. had been identified as a different species than Thescelosaurus from at least the year 1990 in the year 1990, when Sues and Norman identified the species as an, unnamed hypsilophodont. It wasn’t until 1995 , that Peter Galton gave it its own name. Alongside the characteristics Morris had pointed out in his paper, he also called attention to the hefty and wide dentary. In the same article, he showed that the characteristics Morris believed were connected to T. garbanii and T. Edmontonensis are the result of injury to the former’s ankle, which suggests that T. garbanii was also an alternative to Thescelosaurus. He classified it under his new Bugenasaura as another possible kind of species called B. garbanii, however, he also noted that it may also be related an earlier pachycephalosaurid Stygimoloch or an unknown third dinosaur.
Galton (1999) has revisited this genus, affixing this to Thescelosaurinae and reiterating the diagnostic characters and adding two more evidence: A tooth (YPM 8098) from the Maastrichtian-late (Upper Cretaceous) Lance Formation of Lusk, Wyoming, and, to the right of. Bugenasaura, UCMP 46911, an untreated tooth that was found from the Upper Jurassic of Weymouth, England. If the second assumption is true it will significantly increase the stratigraphic reach of thescelosaurs.